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!!The Types of the tool for making jewelry!!

-Pliers-

1.Chain Nose Pliers

Have points with a round outside edge and a flat inside edge.  The flat edge can come with or without teeth and provides a firm grip on wire when bending to different positions. Useful for guiding a needle through a tight spot in your beadwork, and can also be used for opening and closing jump rings and can be used when making wrapped loops. Do not confuse with “needle nose” pliers, needle nose pliers have much longer jaws.

2.Crimping  Pliers

Used for securing crimp tubes. Has two wells – one with a notch for creasing the crimp bead, and a smooth well for folding the notched crimp onto itself. Comes in two sizes – regular (for crimps up to 3mm) and micro (for crimps smaller than 2mm).

3.Flat nose pliers

Similar to chain nose pliers, except that they have much wider jaws. Handy for making wrapped loops and can also be used to open and close jump rings. Use these pliers when you want to make sure you have a firm grip on your wire.

4.Flat round nose pliers

Have one jaw shaped like a round nose pliers and one jaw shaped like a chain nose pliers. Markings on the inside to allow for making consistently sized loops in your wire is essential to making jump rings for chain maille. Will leave minimal marks on your wire.

5. Round nose pliers

Have two round jaws, used to pinch wire and bend it into round shpes, from slight arcs to full looped circles..  Can leave marks in the metal wire where you grasp the wire in the jaws. For consistently sized loops, use a permanent black marker to mark the spot on the jaws where you need to hold the wire to make the desired size loop.

6.Wire straightening pliers

Have two thick, flat nylon jaws and are used for straightening any bends or kinks in your wire. Hold the wire in your non-dominant hand and grasp it with the pliers in your dominant hand. Pull the pliers along the wire several times until your wire comes out straight. You will get some indents in the jaws,  replace them periodically with new nylon jaws.



National Treasure No. 87 (South Korea)

The Gold Crown from Geumgwanchong (Hangul: 금관총 금관; Hanja: 金冠塚金冠; RR: Geumgwanchong geumgwan; MR: Kŭmgwanch’ong kŭmgwan) is the largest golden crown discovered. The Gold Crown Tomb (Geumgwanchong) was named after this treasure. It was designated as a national treasure on December 12, 1962.

The crown is 44 centimeters in height and has a diameter of 19 centimeters. It is the largest golden crown from Silla discovered thus far.

There are two parts to this crown. The outer band was discovered within the tomb while the inner cap was found outside of the tomb. The outer band consists of three tree-like branches which have three branches each. The Chinese character 出 chul is written three times on the hand band. Additionally, the outer head band also has two antler-like protrusions on the left and right side. All of the protrusions have jade and glass beads and tiny golden mirrors that dangle from the branches. On the sides of the headband also are two chains of gold with leaf-like decorations that end with jade jewels. These two chains hang below the head band.

The inner crown is a triangle-shaped hat made of thin sheet gold and has two wing-like decorations on it. The wings are believed to relate to Korean shamanistic beliefs.

The crown is currently housed in the Gyeongju National Museum and is a masterpiece of Korean art.

The gold measurements

All gold is not created equal. Identical rings offered in both 12-karat and 18-karat gold. . . the 18-karat ring has fifty-percent more of the precious metal than the 12-karat ring. A 10-karat piece of jewelry has less than fifty-percent gold in the metal that is used.

The measurement of the fineness or percentage of gold in a metal is a karat–abbreviated K. Pure gold–100 percent gold–is 24 karats. All alloys (the combination of gold and other metals) are calculated based on the 24 karats. So, if you are buying an 18K ring, you are purchasing 18 parts gold and 6 parts other metals.

Gold less than 10-karat (41.67% gold) cannot be legally called “gold” in the United States.

Karat Gold Fineness

Karat Percentage Gold
Fineness
Karat Percentage Gold
Fineness
8 33.33%
.3333
16 66.67%
.6667
9 37.50%
.3750
17 70.83%
.7083
Note: Gold Fineness less
than 10 karat cannot have
a karat mark within U.S.
18 75.00%
.7500
10 41.67%
.4167
19 79.17%
.7917
11 45.83%
.4583
20 83.33%
.8333
12 50.00%
.5000
21 87.50%
.8750
13 54.17%
.5417
22 91.67%
.9167
14 58.33%
.5833
23 95.83%
.9583
15 62.50%
.6250
24 100.00%
1.000

The Origin Of Earrings and Kinds

The Origin Of Earrings

Ear piercing has been a part of human culture ever since the earliest hunter-gatherer tribes. Though the phrase “ear piercing” most frequently refers to a single hole inside earlobe, you’ll find at least eight other locations for the ear to be pierced. There is the helix belonging to the ear, also called the “cartilage” (an inaccurate term, as the whole ear is built of cartilage), which could be the most typical place to obtain a piercing, aside from the lobe. All piercing from the upper part belonging to the ear are referred to as cartilage piercing.

The method of having your cartilage pierced is ordinarily far more elaborate and painful than a piercing in the lobe. Earrings, studs, and loops for ear piercing are built out of your wide variety of materials. These include metal, plastic, wood, stone, and glass. Quite a few earrings are fairly cheap, and are often bought virtually anywhere. Other earrings are costly, in particular if they are actually crafted using rare, top quality materials, such as gold, silver, platinum, and EGL loose diamonds or other precious stones.

In recorded history, earrings have been traced back to the ancient city of Per polis, Persia, where the illustrations on the walls depict soldiers wearing earrings. The oldest earrings ever discovered were crafted in 2500 BC Iraq. Throughout the Dark Ages, when most belonging to the populace was impoverished, the reputation of earrings and other pieces of jewelry sharply declined. As nations rose once again, in particular through the Roman Empire, jewelry was crafted and worn with gusto like a sign of status and luxury. The reputation of earrings also largely depended about the fashions that prevailed at the time.

Through the middle Ages, when attention was directed towards elaborate hairstyles and skillfully crafted dresses, earrings lost priority. Even so, as collars became higher and hair was worn up, earrings became much more common. Even though there was no International Gem Institute back in the course of this time, so IGI appraisals could not be given, there have been still several jewel experts who could tell a customer if their jewel was high quality or not. Several sorts of earrings were being designed as civilizations prospered and specialization of labor occurred.

Through the 1850s, earrings lost recognition once more. Hair was tied behind the head, covering the ears, or bonnets and hats were worn. In addition, the religious and social sentiments on the time associated earrings with heathens, vanity, and excess. With the 1920s came the advent on the clip-on earring, leading to ear piercing to fall far more out of favor. On the other hand, during this time, small groups of males were fond of piercing their ears. Sailors particularly saw earrings as a symbol of their seafaring adventures.

They also wore earrings for acupuncture purposes in helping the eyesight and hearing, too as payment for anyone who finds their shipwrecked bodies to give them a proper burial. Earrings rose in recognition, thanks to hippies and homosexuals in the sixties, punk rockers from the seventies (who inspired fashion trends in multiple piercing), and the majority of women inside eighties. A lot of individuals, when buying high priced earrings for themselves or loved ones, prefer to buy a set built with a non conflict diamond or Canadian diamonds.

An additional sort of ear modification is ear gauging, wherein the person will permanently stretch their ear over a loop, leading to a noticeable hole within the earlobe. This can be done on a minor scale, less than the diameter of the pencil. Medium scale gauged ears can barely fit a thumb through the hole while in the lobe. Grotesquely exaggerated gauges have fit entire soda cans, or objects of your greater diameter.

Types of earrings

Modern standard pierced earrings

Stud earrings

B238RF_CZ_Detailed_Petite_Daisy_Flower_Stud_Earrings

The main characteristic of stud earrings is the appearance of floating on the ear or earlobe without a visible (from the front) point of connection. Studs are invariably constructed on the end of a post, which penetrates straight through the ear. The post is held in place by a removable friction back or clutch. Occasionally, the stud earring is constructed so that the post is threaded, allowing a screw back to securely hold the earring in place. This is useful in preventing the loss of expensive earrings containing precious stones or made of precious metals.

Hoop earrings

B045MO_Spiral_Textured_Big_Teardrop_Hoop

hoop earrings are circular or semi-circular in design, and look very similar to a ring. They are often constructed of metal tubing, with a thin wire attachment penetrating the ear. The hollow tubing is permanently attached to the wire at the front of the ear, and slips into the tube at the back. The entire device is held together by tension between the wire and the tube. Other hoop designs do not complete the circle, but penetrate through the ear in a post, using the same attachment techniques that apply to stud earrings. A variation is the continuous hoop earring. In this design, the earring is constructed of a continuous piece of solid metal, which penetrates through the ear and can be rotated almost 360o. One of the ends is permanently attached to a small piece of metallic tubing or a hollow metallic bead. The other end is inserted into the tubing or bead, and is held in place by tension. One special type of hoop earring is the sleeper earring. This is a very small continuous piece of (typically) gold wire which essentially hugs the base of the earlobe with the ends connecting in the back. Because their small size makes them comfortable, sleepers are sometimes worn at night to keep an ear piercing from closing.

Dangle earrings

dangle

Dangle earrings are designed to flow from the bottoms of the earlobes, and are available in various lengths from a centimeter or two, all the way to brushing the shoulders. They are generally attached to the ear by the use of thin wires, which go through the earlobe and connect to themselves in a small hook at the back. A variation is the French hook design, which merely hangs from the earlobe without closure, although small plastic retainers are sometimes used on ends of French hooks. Rarely, dangle earrings use the post attachment design.

Slave earrings

A rarely seen type of earring is the slave earring, in which a stud is connected by a delicate chain to an ear cuff  or a cartilage pierce worn higher on the ear.
Clip-on earrings
Clip on Earrings 7
Clip-on earrings have existed longer than any other variety of non-pierced earrings. The clip itself is a two-part piece attached to the back of an earring. The two pieces closed around the earlobe, using mechanical pressure to hold the earring in place.

Cuff earrings

cuff

An ear cuff is a curved band of metal that is pressed onto the helix of the ear. It stays on by pinching the ear.

Spring hoop earrings

spring hook

spring hoops are almost indistinguishable from standard hoop earrings and stay in place by means of spring force.

Button earrings

button

Button earrings are flat, typically round earrings that sit on the earlobe and have no dangling parts.

Cascade earrings

cascade earrings

Cascade earrings are usually long earrings with layers of beads, resulting in the name cascade, which means waterfall. Smaller beads such as glass and crystal beads are often used to create the ‘layers’. The earrings for this project have large focal beads followed by layers of different colored crystal beads, attached to chain. It is important to use good color combinations.

Article by http://www.spiritus-temporis.com/earring/types-of-earrings.html
http://www.articlesnatch.com/Article/The-Origin-Of-Earrings/1131211
Wiki

Jewelry Allergies

My Jewelry Makes Me Itch

“As a result of everything making my skin itch, I only wear Gold jewelry.” Many people have these symptoms when wearing some types of jewelry. This condition is frequently referred to as dermatitis and is a consequence of an allergic reaction to some metals. This is commonly due to the Nickel content found in most types or jewelry. Nickel allergies are quite common. Nearly one in seven people experience an allergic reaction to Nickel. More women tend to suffer from Nickel allergies than men. This may be simply due to the fact that women wear more jewelry then men, and therefore are more likely to be exposed to Nickel. What jewelry metals then don’t contain Nickel?

Let’s first examine Gold jewelry. Rarely will jewelry made from 14K yellow Gold cause an allergic reaction to those that have sensitive skin. Not so with white Gold. Yellow Gold is usually alloyed with Nickel to produce a Silver color. One out of every nine people will react to the Nickel in white Gold. An alternative to solid Gold jewelry is Gold-filled or jewelry deemed “GF.” Gold-filled is made by heat forming a layer of 10K or more (commonly 14K Gold) around a base metal. Gold-filled results in a heavier layer of Gold applied to the base metal vs. Gold-plating. Gold-filled jewelry has a layer of Gold that is 75 to 200 times thicker than most Gold-plated jewelry.

Another great alternative for those that like “white” jewelry is Fine Silver or Sterling Silver jewelry. Fine Silver is by definition 99.9% pure Silver. Most Silver jewelry is not made from Fine Silver. However, if it is hammered or work-hardened, it is just fine and will last a lifetime without much care. Plus it won’t tarnish, since it contains no Copper. Sterling Silver is commonly used in Silver jewelry. By definition, Sterling Silver is 92.5% pure Silver. The other 7.5% is Copper. Copper is added to pure Silver during the alloying process to strengthen and add durability to the end product – Sterling Silver. Sterling Silver is a great alternative for people with Nickel metal allergies, since Copper is commonly used in Sterling Silver. All Sterling Silver products are hallmarked with a .925 symbol. Some artisan jewelry may not have this hallmark, but by law, all manufactured jewelry must.

If you have Nickel allergies, another choice of metal to consider is Copper. Copper jewelry generally is 100% pure Copper, and thus doesn’t contain any Nickel or Nickel alloys. Surgical or Stainless Steel is commonly used in jewelry. As the name implies, Surgical Stainless Steel was designed to be used in the human body. However, the Stainless Steel alloy contains between eight and twelve percent Nickel. Since the Stainless Steel alloy contains Nickel, most people with sensitive skin should avoid it. Since Platinum contains 95% Platinum and 5% Iridium, Platinum makes a great alternative for those with skin allergies. Titanium is a sure bet for those with metal allergies. Titanium jewelry is both hypoallergenic and lasting. It’s one of the best metals for those that suffer from Nickel allergies.

These types of metals and jewelry should be avoided if you commonly have reactions to the jewelry you wear. The largest group of jewelry that contains Nickel is Fashion or Costume jewelry. German Silver or Nickel Silver is another commonly used metal in Fashion Jewelry and should be avoided. German Silver is a misnomer in that it contains no Silver. The Silver refers to the Silver coloration of the metal. The “Silver” appearance of German Silver is a result of melting Nickel, lead, zinc, or tin during the alloying process. If your are concerned that your jewelry may contain Nickel, the best way to determine this would be to buy a test kit available online. By asking a few questions and doing a little research upfront, you can save both time and money, and still allow be able to wear fashionable jewelry.

Article by Hubpages Inc

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